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Who are at risk for Type 2 Diabetes
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Presence of certain risk factors increases the possibility of having diabetes. Following are the persons at a greater risk of having diabetes:

1. Family History of Diabetes:

Persons with first degree blood relatives having diabetes like father, mother, brother, sister are at the greatest risk of having diabetes. Family history of diabetes is the greatest risk factor for developing diabetes. If both the father and mother are diabetic, then risk of Diabetes in next generation is highest.

2. Obesity:

Obesity causes insulin resistance, which increases the possibility of having diabetes. The risk of having diabetes is more in persons with central obesity i.e. obesity around waist.

Obesity can be defined in two ways:

I.  A Body Mass Index (B.M.I.) greater than 25

Weight grading according to Body Mass Index :


< 19

Under Weight


Normal Weight


Over Weight


Obesity Grade I


Obesity Grade II


Obesity Grade III (Morbid)



Recently WHO has defined new criteria for BMI in Indians. According to this a BMI of 19 to 23 is Normal, 23.1 to 27 is Overweight, 27.1 to 32.9 is Obesity Grade-I, 33 to 36.9 is Obesity Grade-II and above 37 is Obesity Grade -III or Morbid Obesity.

II. Increased Waist Hip Ratio  (Central Obesity)


Central Obesity:

For calculating central obesity, waist and hip measurements are taken and the Waist  Hip Ratio i.e. WHR is obtained.

For example if the waist of a man measures 90 cm and his hip measures 80 cm then the WHR is 1.12.

For males risk of diabetes is greater if WHR is more than 0.90

For females risk of diabetes is greater if WHR is more than 0.85


If in males waist is more than 102 cm and in females  waist is more than 88 cm, risk of diabetes is more.


3. Lack of Physical Activity

4. High Cholesterol: Specially if Triglyceride is more than 250 mg/dl and HDL-C is less than 40 mg/dl.

5. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

6. History of Gestational Diabetes

7. Female with history of having high birth weight baby   i.e. > 4 kg.

8. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in women

9. Person with Low Birth Weight: If the birth weight of a person was less than 2 kg and that person develops obesity in adult life, the risk factor of developing diabetes increases in such people. The more the number of above risk factors in a person, the more the chance of having diabetes.

Metabolic syndrome [people with highest risk for Diabetes]:

Those persons who have any 3 of the 5 mentioned in below table have very high risk of Diabetes-



  I.  Waist more than 102 cm. in males & more than 88 cm. in females

 II. Triglycerides more than150mg/dl.

III. HDL Cholesterol below 50 mg/dl. in males and below 40 mg/dl.


 In females.

IV. Blood pressure more than 130/85 mm/Hg.

 V.   Fasting serum glucose more than110 mg/dl.


                                     Out of above 5 if 3 factors are present, then a person has metabolic syndrome and hence has a higher risk of developing diabetes.




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