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Glossary - A
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Aflatoxin- A virulent poison produced by the fungio Aspecigillus flavus that can contaminate, peanuts & cereals stored in warm, humid conditions. It is not destroyed by cooling & can impair the imune system & can cause cancer.
Agar Agar
Agar Agar- Obtained from seaweed. It can absorb over 25 times of its weight of water, can form a huge bulk.
Albinism- a condition in which people are born with insufficient amounts of the pigment melanin, which is responsible for hair, skin, and eye color.
Albumin- It is a protein, synthesized only in liver.
Albuminuria- More than normal amounts of a protein called albumin in the urine. Albuminuria may be a sign of kidney disease, a problem that can occur in people who have had diabetes for a long time.
Alcohol- It is a colourless, volatile, liquid with a characteristic odour & taste. It is usually prepared by the fermentation of carbohydrate like react, hops molases, mohwa rice of jagery. 1 gms of alcohol gives 7 kcals. It can be the quickest cause of energy & does not require digestion.
Algae- Spirulina Algae : These are tiny plant like organisms valued as an immensely rich source of proteins, vitamins and minerals.
Alimentary canal
Alimentary canal- another term for the digestive tract.
Alkaloids- Nitrogen containing compounds produced mainly by plants. Some including Iodine, Morphine requimine, are used for medicinal purpose : others can be poisonous which have turned green through exposure to light & nicotine (in cigarrates, in small amounts nicotine has a stimulating effect, but large doses are toxic).
Alkalosis- dangerously decreased acidity of the blood, which can be caused by high altitudes, hyperventilation, and excessive vomiting
Allergen- a substance that causes an allergic reaction
Allergenes- Any substance that causes an allergy, such as pollen which triggers hay fever or peanuts which can cause a severe asthama attack or lead to swelling of tongue or throat.
Allergic rhinitis
Allergic rhinitis- irritation of the nasal passages and the whites of the eyes, causing sneezing, runny nose, and sore eyes
Allergy- it is a hypersensitive reaction
Alopecia- baldness or loss of hair, mainly on the head, either in defined patches or completely; the cause is unknown
Alpha - 1 : Antitrypsin is a glycoprotein constituting over 80% of alpha - 1 globulin seen on electrophoresis.
Alpha Cell
Alpha Cell- A type of cell in the pancreas (in areas called the islets of Langerhans). Alpha cells make and release a hormone called glucagons, which raises the level of glucose (sugar) in the blood.
Alpha Glucosidase Inhibitors
Type 2 diabetes medicines that treat diabetes by slowing down the absorption of sugars from the intestine
Altitude sickness
Altitude sickness- headaches, dizziness, and nausea usually experienced at heights above 8,000 ft because of reduced oxygen in the air
Amenorrhea- absence of menstrual periods, occurring either after or before menstruation has begun
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art of painless insulin treatment

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