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Glossary - C
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Calcification- the depositing of calcium salts in the body, which occurs normally in teeth and bones but abnormally in injured muscles and narrowed arteries.
Calcification- The process of calcium deposition over a fatty plaque on the inner walls of the coronary arteries.
Calcium- a mineral in the body and the basic component of teeth and bones; essential for cell function, muscle contraction, transmission of nerve impulses, and blood clotting.
Calcium channel blocker
Calcium channel blocker- a drug used to treat chest pain, high blood pressure, and irregular heartbeat by preventing the movement of calcium into the muscle
Callus- A small area of skin, usually on the foot, that has become thick and hard from rubbing or pressure. Calluses may lead to other problems such as serious infection. Shoes that fit well can keep calluses from forming. See also: Foot care
Callus- a thickened area of skin due to consistent pressure or friction, or the area around a bone break where new bone is formed
Calorie- A unit of energy. It is the energy that comes from food. Some foods have more calories than other. Fats have more calories ex.1gm of fat gives 9calories. Most vegetables have few People with diabetes are advised to follow meal plans with suggested amounts of calories for each meal and/or snack.
Calorie Requirement
Calorie Requirement- Calorie derived from food are important for growth, development and are necessary to lead an active & healthy life. Quantitative food requirements are usually estimated in terms of calories and are defined by the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) which are established for the general healthy population. The primary factors which affect the calorie rquierments are : age, sex, height, basal metabolic rate and activity level of the individual.
Cancer- a group of diseases in which cells grow unrestrained in an organ or tissue in the body; can spread to tissues around it and destroy them or be transported through blood or lymph pathways to other parts of the body
Cancer staging
Cancer staging- a method to determine how much a cancer has developed
Candidiasis- a yeast infection caused by the fungus Candida albicans; occurs most often in the vagina, but also in the mouth, on moist skin, or on the penis.
Capillary- a tiny blood vessel that connects the smallest arteries to the smallest veins and allows exchange of oxygen and other materials between blood cells and body tissue cells
Carbohydrate- a substance, mainly sugar and starch that is a main source of energy for the body and is found in sources such as cereals, breads, pastas, grains, and vegetables
One of the three main classes of foods and a source of energy. One gram of carbohydrates gives four calories. Carbohydrates are mainly sugars and starches that the body breaks down into glucose (a simple sugar that the body can use to feed its cells). The body also uses carbohydrates to make a substance called glycogen that is stored in the liver and muscles for future use. If the body does not have enough insulin or cannot use the insulin it has, then the body will not be able to use carbohydra
Carcinogen- anything that can cause cancer.
Carcinoma- a cancer that occurs on the surface or lining of an organ
Cardiac arrest
Cardiac arrest- the sudden cessation of the heart's pumping action, possibly due to a heart attack, respiratory arrest, electrical shock, extreme cold, blood loss, drug overdose, or a severe allergic reaction.
Cardiogenic shock
Cardiogenic shock- a severely dangerous condition involving decreased blood output from the heart, usually as a result of a heart attack.
Cardiomegaly- a condition marked by enlargement of the heart, either because of a thickened heart muscle or an enlarged heart chamber; usually a result of the heart having to work harder than normal, as occurs with high blood pressure.
Cardiomyopathy- a disease of the heart muscle that results in decreased output and reduced blood flow.
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