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Glossary - M
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Menarche- the beginning of menstruation
Meniere's disease
Meniere's disease- a disorder of the inner ear, causing hearing loss, ringing in the ear, and the sensation that one's surroundings are spinning
Meninges- the three membranes that surround and protect the spinal cord and brain
Meningioma- a rare noncancerous tumor developing in the protective membranes covering the brain called the meninges; can cause headaches and problems with vision and mental function
Meningitis- inflammation of the meninges; usually caused by infection by a microorganism (meningitis caused by bacteria is life-threatening; viral meningitis is milder)
Meniscectomy- surgical removal of all or part of a cartilage disk from a joint
Meniscus- a crescent-shaped pad of cartilage in joints that helps to reduce friction
Menopause- The period of time during which women stop ovulating is called the menopause. It usually occurs between the ages of 45 & 55 though the age of onset is extemely variable. For some women the hot flushes, night sweats, mood swings & depression that can accompany the menopause are almost unbearable.
Menorrhagia- excessive loss of blood during menstruation, which can be caused by disorders of the uterus
Menorrhagia (Heavy Periods)
Menorrhagia (Heavy Periods)- May have many causes, such as hormone imbalance or fibroids.
Menstrual cycle
Menstrual cycle- the periodic discharge of blood and mucosal tissue from the uterus, occurring from puberty to menopause in a woman who is not pregnant
Menstruation- the shedding of the lining of the uterus during the menstrual cycle
Metabolic rate
Metabolic rate- the speed at which the body uses energy
Metabolism- Chemical reactions in the body. These consists of synthetic activities as well as breakdown of biological molecules.
Metabolite- any substance that takes part in a chemical reaction in the body
Metastasis- the spreading of a cancerous tumor to another part of the body through lymph, blood, or across a cavity; also sometimes refers to a tumor that has been produced in this way
Microalluminuria- Damage to the walls of blood vessels in the kidney causes leakage of protein into the urine. This is known as Microalluminuria. Microalluminuria is defined as 20-200 mg/min or 30-300 mg /24 hours in 2 out of 3 consecutive test taken within 2-3 months.
Microvascular Disease
Microvascular Disease- Disease of the smallest blood vessels that sometimes occurs when a person has had diabetes for a long time. The walls of the vessels become abnormally thick but weak, and therefore they bleed, leak protein, and slow the flow of blood through the body. Then some cells, for example, the ones in the center of the eye, may not get enough blood an may be damaged.
Migraine- a severe headache, usually accompanied by vision problems and/or nausea and vomiting, and that typically recurs
Mineral- a substance that is a necessary part of a healthy diet (such as potassium, calcium, sodium, phosphorus, and magnesium)
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