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Glossary - R
 
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Radiation
Radiation- a variety of types of energy, such as X-rays and ultraviolet
Radiation therapy
Radiation therapy- treatment of a disease, such as cancer, using forms of radioactivity that damage or destroy abnormal cells
Radiculopathy
Radiculopathy- any disease of the nerve roots; can be caused by disk prolapse, arthritis, and other problems
Radiography
Radiography- the formation of images of the inside of the body using radiation projected through the body and onto film; a radiograph is also called an X-ray
Radionuclide scanning
Radionuclide scanning- an imaging technique in which a radioactive substance is introduced into the body and its emitted radiation is detected; specific organs can be studied according to the amount of the radioactive substance that they absorb
Rash
Rash- an area of inflammation or a group of spots on the skin
Raynaud's disease
Raynaud's disease- a condition in which the fingers and toes become pale when exposed to cold or emotional stress, owing to sudden narrowing of the arteries that supply them with blood
Receptor
Receptor- a nerve cell that responds to a stimulus and produces a nerve impulse; also refers to the area on the surface of a cell that a chemical must bind to in order to have its effect
Red blood cell
Red blood cell- a doughnut-shaped blood cell that carries oxygen from the lungs to body tissues
Refined Carbohydrates
Refined Carbohydrates- A term used for cereals with low dietary fibre content, sugar, white flour and polished rice are examples of refined carbohydrates.
Reflux esophagitis
Reflux esophagitis- the backflow of gastric acid from the stomach to the lower esophagus, owing to a defect in the valve that separates them
Refsum's disease
Refsum's disease- Caused by a defect in the enzyme systems responsible for the metabolism of phytanic acid found in fish and dairy produce. It manifest itself from the age of 4 to 20. Symptoms vary, but include night blindness & clumsy, uncoordinated movement. It is terated by a rigid diet designed to reduce or eliminate phytanic acid.
Regurgitation
Regurgitation- the backflow of fluid; can refer to food and drink flowing back up from the stomach into the mouth or blood flowing back into the heart through a defective heart valve
Rehabilitation
Rehabilitation- treatment for an injury or illness aimed at restoring physical abilities
Relapse
Relapse- the return of a disease or symptom after it had disappeared
REM sleep
REM sleep- rapid eye movement sleep; the stage of sleep in which dreaming occurs
Remission
Remission- the temporary disappearance of a disease or its symptoms, either partially or completely; also refers to the time period in which this occurs
Renal cell carcinoma
Renal cell carcinoma- the most common type of kidney cancer
Renal colic
Renal colic- severe pain on one side of the lower back, usually as a result of a kidney stone
Renal tubular acidosis
Renal tubular acidosis- inability of the kidneys to remove sufficient amounts of acid from the body, making the blood more acidic than normal
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