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Glossary - S
 
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Spermicide
Spermicide- a contraceptive substance that kills sperm
Sphygmomanometer
Sphygmomanometer- an instrument used to measure blood pressure
Spina bifida
Spina bifida- a birth defect in which a section of the baby's spine fails to develop completely, leaving the spinal cord exposed in that section
Spina bifida occulta
Spina bifida occulta- the least dangerous form of spina bifida, in which bones in the spine fail to close but there is no protrusion of the spinal cord or its fluid cushion out of the body
Spinal cord
Spinal cord- a long tube of nerve tissue inside the spinal column, running from the brain down the length of the back inside of the spine
Spleen
Spleen- an organ located in the upper left abdomen behind the ribs that removes and destroys old red blood cells and helps fight infection
Splenectomy
Splenectomy- surgical removal of the spleen
Spondylitis
Spondylitis- inflammation of the joints between the bones of the spine
Spondylolisthesis
Spondylolisthesis- the slipping of a vertebra in the spine over the one below it
Spondylolysis
Spondylolysis- a disorder in which the lower part of the spine is weakened by an abnormally soft vertebra
Sputum
Sputum- mucus and other material produced by the lining of the respiratory tract; also called phlegm
Stereotaxic surgery
Stereotaxic surgery- brain surgery done through a small opening in the skull and guided by X-rays or computer-aided imaging techniques
Sterilization
Sterilization- a surgery performed to make a person incapable of reproducing; also refers to the process of killing microorganisms on objects such as surgical instruments
Steroids
Steroids- a group of drugs that includes corticosteroids, which resemble hormones produced by the adrenal glands, and anabolic steroids, which are similar to the hormones produced by the male sex organs
Stillbirth
Stillbirth- a baby that is born dead after the 28th week of pregnancy; also called late fetal death
Stool
Stool- another term for feces
Strabismus
Strabismus- a condition in which the eyes are not aligned correctly, such as cross-eye (one eye points inward) and walleye (one eye points outward)
Stroke
Stroke- Acute neurological injury caused by one of the several pathological process involving the blood vessels of the brain. Depends on the pathological process, it may result in either brain haemorrhage or infarction.
Stroke
Stroke- damage to part of the brain because of a lack of blood supply (due to a blockage in an artery) or the rupturing of a blood vessel; leads to complete or partial loss of function in the area of the body that is controlled by the damaged part of the brain
Stroke
Stroke- Disease caused by damage to blood vessels in the brain. Depending on the part of the brain affected, a stroke can cause a person to lose the ability to speak or move a part of the body such as an arm or a leg. Usually only one side of the body is affected.
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